Transducer play a crucial role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process ought to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is converted into an electrical energy.
Kinds of transducer: There are two varieties of transducers, these are: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical energy itself. Thermocouple, 3 Axis Load Cell and much more are the most useful samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are definitely the examples for the Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (including quartz) with an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used for the structure, it generates an electrical charge and, when an electrical field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any type of piezo mechanism could be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to get voltage changes and therefore are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are employed to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also based on Torque Transducer. In this instance, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while reducing the input power at the same time, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually referred to as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually used to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used together with piezo actuators to offer position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to produce a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical energy and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when cutting edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated underneath the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good selection for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor must provide the controller the correct information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the right amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any kind of rapid actuation may cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. In case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system with a counter mass may be integrated and driven with a signal of the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is usually found in fast Miniature Force Sensor for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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